integrated, seamless, secure and roaming mobility infrastructure for connected people and vehicles

Today, the current mobility industry is fragmented and siloed, with travellers using different booking and payment systems across varied modes of transport.

There is little interoperability between modes of transport, across borders or between competing transport service providers, and none are incentivised to act collectively for the consumer of transport services, you and I.

Our blockchain protocol will solve the problem of interoperability and international roaming across the world’s fragmented transport system, by creating uniformity at a “mobility account” level.

The TSio token will unify an eco-system of mobility products and services, while empowering customers to use and manage their travel data across multiple apps and transport services.

Our ambition is to unify the whole transportation landscape – automotive, airlines, public transit and the growing number of sharing-economy platforms, such as Uber, Didi, Ofo and Mobike, to name a few.

The TSio Protocol will provide fair and open market access with smart contract mechanisms in order to enforce agreements between the travelling consumer and transport provider.” – Si Ho (Founder of TSio Protocol and Chair of TravelSpirit Foundation)

Blockchain, the Internet of Things and Artificial Intelligence technologies are now stepping towards a level of maturity ready to offer the transport industry, in combination with existing Web technologies, a universal, secure and scalable platform.” Sir Nic Cary  (Chair of TravelSpirit UK)

Without efficient, secure and convenient universal interoperability, that can provide transport consumers a single mobility account, we believe the integrated transport market opportunity is unlikely to reach what should be its full potential.” Justin Coetzee (CEO – GoMetro)

We are building the Internet of Mobility

We are building a universal, secure and scalable mobility account for connected people and cars. It is interoperable across all transport modes, regional borders, competing transport providers and existing smart ticketing systems. This will give rise to an Internet of Mobility (IoM).

Encompassing both public transport and automotive, our mobility account has applications for the connected car market– including cybersecurity, smart parking and insurance.

Using IoT and Blockchain technologies, our mission is to solve the problem of creating trustworthy multi-lateral commercial agreements between transport providers. This enables the growth of Mobility as a Service – a market valued at circa $1 trillion by 2030.

We can reduce the costs for real-time settlement of high volumes of low-value transactions, provide seamless customer experiences and enable ancillary sales within the transportation retail market.

Clients and third-party applications benefit from low transaction costs, smart contracts, simple cashless implementations and real-time settlement.

As an industry advocate for the Internet of Mobility, TSio Protocol is supporting the vision of the TravelSpirit Foundation and is an active member of the open-source community resource of infrastructure, networks and code.

Contact us for more information.

Our Vision and the Market Opportunity

Our vision for TSio Protocol is to enable both private and public mobility providers to compete in a transparent integrated transport market place. We are focused on providing personalised customer-centric services to anyone and everyone.

Transportation is rapidly changing. New market entrants are increasingly global from day one and consumer expectations for seamless, pain-free, user experiences are high.

Consumer markets have moved away from a desire to own cars to being in control of their digitalised lives: leading to a global demand for integrated transport – a market valued at £1 trillion by 2030.

We are helping make this new market of integrated transport, by building new infrastructure that will empower users to make journeys involving combinations of flights, ferries, private car, shared mobility services (e.g. taxi’s, car hire and bike rental) and public transport (e.g. railways, trams and buses).

TSio Protocol enabled Applications

TSio Protocol enables third party mobile apps, facial recognition systems and wearables to contain travel tokens that can be used to access TSio compliant transport services.

It is compatible with any advancements in seamless customer interface technologies, such as use artificial intelligence enabled facial recognition and ultrasonic sound waves on mobile devices.

Using new smart contract and escrow capabilities, TSio can enable the development of new travel insurance products and manage compensation and dispute arbitration mechanisms.

Digital asset exchange functionality makes it simple for customers and transport operators to openly sell and resell travel products and services, including opening up the peer2peer and crowdfunding markets.

Continue reading “TSio Protocol enabled Applications”


TSio Protocol’s Blockchain network is able to remain highly decentralised and secure, via the ability to run “nodes” on connected cars and smartphones. Context-aware utility on security and operational performance is achieved through a unique combination of Proof of Stake, Proof of Elapsed Time and Proof of Location algorithms.

At the heart of the TSio Protocol, is a novel crypto token, the Tsio, that at any point in time is tethered to an account, a geographic location and holding device. This interaction between the digital and physical domain provides a helpful mathematical constraint for the intended use case of paying for movement of people and goods. It enables high volumes of low value transactions and fast validation processes for speedy through-put.

Please visit TravelSpirit Foundation for our conceptual Whitepaper – “TSio Protocol: The Internet of Mobility”. Or read it online, below.

Read Full Conceptual Whitepaper, online, below:


This Paper anticipates an emerging trend for integration of transport services, representing a $1 trillion per annum market concept called Mobility as a Service (MaaS). Rather than having to locate, book, and pay for each mode of transportation separately, MaaS will enable seamless planning, booking and itinerary management of door-to-door trips, wherever in the world you are.

It argues that services will remain constrained and delivered in silos, without a common rule set and governing framework. This framework will be implemented in a common machine-readable schema, with accompanying behavioural guidance, to govern interoperability between transport modes and across regional and international borders – the Internet of Mobility. It then proposes such a framework and advocates the development of TSio Protocol as a first step, by delivering seamless, secure and roaming global mobility account infrastructure for consumers and vehicles, using Blockchain & IoT technologies.

A novel crowdfunding mechanism, the “Community Token Economy Sale”, is identified for an open-source R&D programme, a key enabler of an open interoperable ecosystem and means of pump priming a new model for value exchange. It then introduces the members of the TSio Protocol “Minimum Viable Community”: TravelSpirit Foundation, GoMetro, Mydex & MyLoop.

Open Abstract


Author of this Whitepaper:

Si Ho, Fellow of Royal Society for the Encouragement of Arts, Manufacturers and Commerce (FRSA), the Chair of TravelSpirit Foundation, founder of TSio Protocol, CEO of the Electric Bike Research Executive and founding board member of the Northern Robotics Network. He is also grandson of Mr. Ho Yee Cheong, founder of Ho Sai Cheong Chinese medicine business (est. 1921).

A 1st Class Cambridge mathematician with over 20 years of industry experience, Si has worked in big data analytics, innovation and urban planning for a diverse range of organisations including Shell Research, Ministry of Defence, Royal Bank of Scotland, Transport for London, Westfield Shopping Centres and Leicester Regeneration Company.

Si spent 7 years at Transport for Greater Manchester, where he architected transport use cases for the UK’s flagship £10m Internet of Things (IoT) City Demonstrator, CityVerve (, and the Cisco project, CitySPIRE – a world-first on using IoT to tackle the issue of aggregating demand and embedding flexible on demand transport into mainstream public transit [26].

Contributors to this Whitepaper:

David Alexander FRSA, F.APS is the CEO of Mydex Community Interest Company (CIC), that has developed and operates a Digital Trust Platform protecting the identity and personal data for people and organisations which ensures privacy by design and GDPR compliance. David is also an author covering CRM, person centred design and empowerment.  David works within his community as a Group Scout Leader and is also a volunteer in a community owned Post Office where he is a Director and Treasurer.

Giles Bailey, FRSA,  the CEO of the TravelSpirit Foundation, Director of Stratageeb Limited and lecturer at the University of Warwick. Previously he gained 20 years’ experience at Transport for London. As Head of Marketing Strategy, he engaged with broadcasters, arts industry and major venues, developed their visitor strategy and co-ordinated the marketing strategy for the Oyster card smart ticketing programme.

Sir Nic Cary, Bt FRSA an expert in data-driven services for transport. He is an affiliated consultant with TravelSpirit, with a career spanning over 30 years, with the most recent 12 years spent in national government, including Head of Transport Data and Digital Transformation at the UK’s Department for Transport, ICT lead for Ministry of Defence and Better Internet Project in the Cabinet Office.

Scott Cain co-founder of Global Entrepreneurship Week & Chief Business Officer of Future Cities Catapult, who cultivate strong relationships with city governments in the UK and globally, to help grow the UK’s advanced urban services sector.

Justin Coetzee founder and CEO of GoMetro. A qualified civil engineer who used to build roads and highways in South Africa. Realizing that this wasn’t the solution to tackle congestion issues – and that the real problem was the drive-alone car as the default transport options – he started GoMetro to convince people to consider public transport as a practical alternative in the first place.

Warwick Goodall is the leader for the Transport Technology and Future of Mobility business in Deloitte in the UK, helping clients to understand the changing technology landscape and benefit from digital innovations to serve customers, operate efficiently, maintain their assets, and plan future transport investments in mobility services. Warwick is a registered Chartered Engineer and Member of the Institution of Engineering and Technology.

Bren Hutchinson  After spending 11 years as a Chartered Accountant with PwC, Bren has spent the last 18 years leading finance teams and influencing business decisions in entrepreneurial, private equity backed businesses.

Nathan King With expertise from over 18 years in FMCG brand marketing and operations with the likes of GSK, Dairy Crest, PepsiCo and Danone, Nathan has set-up AddVantage Strategy to support business leaders and marketing teams to clarify their goals, then identify, unlock and realise their full potential.

Dr. Craig Parkin is an Associate Partner at Citihub specialising in a wide range of technologies across IT Security, Regulation and Architecture. With over 10 years’ experience as a technologist for investment banks he is regularly quoted by the media on topics of IT security and regulatory matters for the crypto-market.

Dan Watkins founder of Contact Law, Parliamentary Spokesperson for Tooting (Borough of London) and School Governor for Oak Lodge School for the Deaf. Dan closely contested Sadiq Khan (Major of London) during the 2015 elections.

Rebecca Derbyshire and Amy Tewkesbury-Johnson; co-founders of MyLoop. Product design graduates, 1st place winners of West Michigan’s Regional Business Plan Competition, 2016 and 2nd place winners of TravelSpirit Hackout, Manchester, 2017. New residents at The Landing technology enterprise incubator in MediaCityUK, Manchester, home of the BBC and ITV Granada Studios.

This whitepaper was also reviewed by Clive Boulton at HyperLedger Requirements Working Group, Rhys Whalley at Manchester China Forum, and acknowledges the significant references to the work of Outlier Ventures on open Community Token Economies [23], with special thanks to Jamie Burke and Aron van Ammers for their support and encouragement to consider this approach to achieving our ambitions for the Internet of Mobility and TSio Protocol.

Open Acknowledgements


Uncontrolled, rapid urbanization presents acute challenges for national and local governments tackling constrained capacity and finance for infrastructure delivery. Unplanned and poorly managed urbanization can give rise to inequality, reduced air quality, congestion and costly sprawling development plans.

New flexible and sharing economy services are blurring the lines between private and public transport and creating a real need for integration across the whole transport network.

Mobility as a Service (MaaS) is a market that has been valued at $1 trillion by 2030 [8] that empowers users to make individual journeys and/or overall mobility lifestyle choices that involve combinations of rail journeys, flights, ferries, private vehicle use, shared mobility services and public transport.

However, the current mobility industry is fragmented and siloed with travellers using different booking and payment systems across different modes of transport. Complex legacy systems for booking, ticketing, scheduling and journey planning, built around data and transport supply, are creating barriers to innovation.

This leads to very little interoperability between modes of transport, across borders or between competing transport companies. Without global and universal interoperability, that can provide customers a single mobility account, we believe the Mobility as a Service (MaaS) market opportunity is unlikely to reach its full potential.

The vision for the Internet of Mobility is to enable both private and public mobility providers to compete in a transparent Mobility-as-a-Service market place that is focused on providing personalised customer-centric services to everyone.

New European data protection regulations, targeted on delivering new consumer rights around data portability, are enshrined in the new General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) [O]. These significantly tighten how personal data is stored and used and the penalties associated with abuse.

GDPR therefore creates an opportunity for new market entrants and technologies that support a more person-centred and decentralised approach to managing the rights and access to personal data. It presents an opportunity to build open protocols that enable interoperability, integration and portability between different accounts, to give the individual the sense of a having single global mobility account, and having more control over the use of their own data.

Amongst other features, the processes, protocols and linked data structures underpinning the Internet of Mobility will enable consumers to manage and pay for their mobility and travel through a single account. It will be interoperable across all transport modes, and able to roam across regional borders and competing service providers.

TSio Protocol will positively disrupt the transport and travel sectors by providing a decentralised virtual infrastructure for connected people and cars.

Linked to the TSio Protocol, we propose a TSio Community Token, that will enable an open “eco-system” of technology companies to build applications across the entire field of transportation – including the automotive, public transit, sharing economy, insurance and aviation industries. In this paper, we:

  • Outline how the TSio Protocol will work, identifying core underlying technologies and areas of innovation.
  • Present a variety of value propositions, applications and services that the TSio Protocol eco-system will benefit from.
  • Explain the utility of our TSio Community Token and role of the not-for-profit TravelSpirit Foundation in creating a critical mass of founding partners, and enabling a shared and open mobility economy with powerful network effects.
  • In publishing this WhitePaper, create an open invitation to join the TravelSpirit Community ( and support us in our ambitions to launch a public ICO [t] in 2018 for the TSio Protocol.

Open Overview

The Challenge

With cities consuming between two-thirds and three-quarters of the world’s energy, their role in driving a clean energy future is inescapable. Around 1.5 million people are added to the global urban population every week, and the proportion of the world’s population living in urban areas is heading for 66 percent by 2050 [1].

The global imperative for change is clear.

Uncontrolled, rapid urbanization presents acute challenges for national and local governments, with constrained capacity and finance for infrastructure delivery.

Unplanned and poorly managed urbanization can give rise to inequality, pollution, and costly sprawling development plans.

Too much of city development and planning is based on existing habits and behaviours, which oftentimes neither address the challenges, nor increase happiness.

However, the mobility industry is fragmented and siloed with travellers using different booking and payment systems across different modes of transport.

Complex legacy systems, for booking, ticketing, scheduling and journey planning, built around data and transport supply, are creating barriers to innovation and a seamless user experience.


  • There is a distinct lack of true usage based products and services for an increasingly sophisticated consumer market.
  • Commercial tensions between competing transport businesses make aggregation of services and data highly challenging.
  • The transport system is populated with centralised data and system siloes, with expensive back office reconciliation processes that are seldom interoperable.
  • Upgrading legacy systems for compliance with the latest European data protection regulations is creating substantial IT challenges.

Data provides the power to understand communities and their values. It enables us to transform our lives for the better, and presents solutions that would otherwise be impossible through any other means.

The challenge is therefore how to create the right technological and commercial frameworks that incentivise use of data as an essential global infrastructure, to solve global imperatives such as climate change and environmental degradation, while providing the travelling public a seamless mobility experience.

Open The Challenge

Market Opportunity for Integrated Transport

Around the world, new ways of providing mobility are appearing in our cities and towns each day. From autonomous vehicles, to e-bikes, new technologies are bringing our science-fiction dreams to life. At the same time, rapid adoption of mobile internet access is creating new business models and service offerings that change the way we access existing modes.

In the UK, we can see the start of changing travel behaviour as car-ownership levels continue to decline in London [2] and car club membership have grown to 250,000 across the country in the last 10 years [9]. Furthermore, public bike-share schemes have reached over 25 towns and cities [28] and UK Government are planning new subsidies to increase cycling through the benefits of e-bikes [26]. The rise in online shopping is reducing private-car dependency, with online now accounting for 15% of all retail spend [14].

Mobility as a Service (MaaS) as a global market proposition, estimated to be worth £1 trillion by 2030 [8], is a concept that empowers users to make individual journeys and/or overall mobility lifestyle choices that involve combinations of flights, ferries, private car, shared mobility services (e.g. taxis, car hire and bike rental) and public transport (e.g. railways, trams and buses).

As we have seen with AirBnB, Uber and IoT company Mobike, new market entrants are increasingly global in outlook from day one and are raising the bar on consumer expectations for seamless, pain-free and user experiences.

Supported by educational and advocacy white papers by key influencers such as the UK Transport Systems Catapult [6, 17], Deloitte [5, 12, 13], University College London [15, 16], the MaaS Alliance [22] and the TravelSpirit Foundation [18, 19, 21] – MaaS is a particularly hot topic across Europe.

Finland has led the way in developing policies and regulations to support MaaS market development [10]. In the UK, the British government is undertaking a new inquiry into the transformative potential of integrated, multi-modal MaaS services, and overcoming barriers to implementation in UK cities and regions [29].

These developments aren’t simply emerging from public transport policy circles. The airline industry is taking a much stronger interest in ground transportation as an ancillary sales channel. And the automotive industry is also investing in this area, as it moves to a future of connected, autonomous and electric vehicles. For example, Toyota Financial Services has invested in the Mobility as a Service and the Blockchain / Smart Contract market through investments in MaaS Global [20] and R3 CEV [11].

 “We need an integrated system that uses real time data to optimise personal mobility on a massive scale, without hassle or compromise for travellers.” William Clay “Bill” Ford, great grandson of Henry Ford; Executive Chairman and CEO of Ford Motor Company, 2011 (TED talk).

MaaS also has the potential to upend existing business models and greatly disrupt local economies. However, in a “world of closed”, we foresee a future MaaS market that is fragmented, and which struggles to reconcile the private automotive world with the world of public transit [18].

For example, even now we see commercial and cultural tensions between competing transportation businesses that make aggregation of services and data, to the benefit of the consumer, highly challenging. In cases where the company culture is receptive to collaboration, the problem for service providers is how to develop a trusted relationship with third party aggregator platforms.

Furthermore, without the ability to interoperate, it is likely that the market will develop a “winner takes all” scenario, where the global value of the market becomes highly centralised and dominated by a few heavyweight players.

This is not a future we look forward to, and it does not fit with the wider trend for decentralised market places, that is being enabled by the Internet of Things and Blockchain technologies.

Open Market Opportunity for Integrated Transport

The Rise of the TravelSpirit Foundation

Transport (air, sea, automotive, public transit and new sharing platforms) is part of everyone’s lives. It shapes our social interactions, our work and our leisure. It is bound to the economy and has a deep impact on our environment.

Not-for-profit global think-tank and mobility eco-system community curator, the TravelSpirit Foundation is championing an open world, that demands a shift in corporate thinking, and in many cases, challenges the “status quo” within the transport sector [18].

It asks businesses and public organisations to derive value and achieve results based on open collaboration, open data, open source protocols, transparent decision making and high ethical standards to ensure the greatest benefits to the global economy. If in any doubt on the need to champion an open approach, consider for a moment what the world would be like today if Tim Berners-Lee had patented the Worldwide Web and HTTP.

The Foundation believes we must ensure that the world of new mobility does not take substantial value and profits out of local communities. Instead it must add value and improve citizens’ wellbeing.

 To do so, we need to challenge assumptions that the development of new mobility models will be proprietary, monopolistic, and closed to outsiders – whether they be from the public or private sector.

TravelSpirit Foundation is rallying together a set of global funding partners to develop and deploy the Internet of Mobility for global, accessible MaaS. Built with Web, Internet of Things, AI and Blockchain technologies [24], this framework will enable MaaS providers to compete in a transparent market that is truly focused on providing individualised customer-centric services to anyone and everyone.

TravelSpirit Foundation and its Community was born in Manchester, UK, in early 2016, founded with the support of a collaboration between Transport for Greater Manchester and the Open Source Initiative, as an open-source project for transportation.

TravelSpirit Foundation’s governance structure, developed with the support of fiduciary host Public Software CIC, is well equipped and ready to play the crypto-industry best-practice role of the not-for-profit foundation, for receiving the cash proceeds from a public Initial Coin Offering (ICO). TravelSpirit will manage the development of the open-source TSio Protocol layer and develop the open eco-system of applications and services that will utilise core TSio Protocol technologies and the TSio Community Token.

Similarly, the TravelSpirit Community (visit for current members), have already bought into the benefits of belonging to an open eco-system, built around a global common of code and data infrastructure – the Internet of Mobility. See our later chapter on the TravelSpirit Community Token Economy for further explanation on the role that the TravelSpirit Community will play in the TSio Protocol.

Open The Rise of the TravelSpirit Foundation

Solution Architecture for TSio Protocol

The mobility industry is fragmented and siloed with travellers using different booking and payment systems across different modes of transport. Complex legacy systems, for booking, ticketing, scheduling and journey planning, built around data and transport supply, are creating barriers to innovation.

A root cause of this is that the value in transport is held in many hands. For this reason, none are incentivised to act collectively for the consumer of transport services. To realise the seamless and integrated Mobility-as-a-Service market opportunity, there must be a ready means of exchange between disparate service offerings.

Blockchain, Internet of Things and Artificial Intelligence technologies are now stepping towards a level of maturity ready to offer the transport industry, in combination with existing Web technologies, a universal, secure and scalable platform – the Internet of Mobility.

The TSio Protocol will be an open-source core protocol layer, that sits between base distributed ledger and smart contract technologies (a.k.a. Blockchain [24]) and the eco-system application and service layers that will sit above it. It will serve as the orchestration protocol for mobility in a similar fashion to the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) that underpins the Worldwide Web. It provides this by enabling seamless interoperability, secured and curated by Blockchain technology.

We are Blockchain enthusiastic, while focussed on using the right tools for the job.

The TSio Protocol will provide equitable and open market access with smart contract mechanisms to enforce contractual agreements. The transport industry will benefit from personalisable software-as-a-service and lower transaction costs.

To meet our future eco-system needs and to achieve our strategic aims, we have identified the following design objectives for the core TSio Protocol layer:

  • Enable eco-system to empower the travelling public to access multiple transport services through a single and universal mobility account interface.
  • Enable account system inter-operability and roaming capability between transport operators, modes and across borders.
  • Solve the problem of how to create trustworthy multi-lateral commercial arrangements between transport providers who would otherwise fail to collaborate.
  • Reduce the costs for transport providers requiring real-time settlement of high volumes of low-value payments.
  • Provide low network latency, fast verification and compatibility with low power devices.
  • Prevent fraud, protects data and resists denial of service attacks.
  • Manage the rights and responsibilities of highly portable personal data.

There is now a vast array of new and developing variants of Distributed Ledger technologies, some being developed without specific applications or industries in mind, others developed for specific industry use-cases, with some risks of duplicated efforts and the development of new data siloes.

High Level Architecture for TSio Core Protocol Layer and Community Token


Source: Outlier Ventures: Creating sustainable digital token economies, September 2017

As an industrial use-case led project, we plan to exploit, and influence the evolution of, existing low-level protocols. We will develop a people-transport industry specific core protocol layer that works across all transportation modes situated between the lower level distributed ledger protocols and higher level eco-system applications and services.

By leveraging the latest developments in Distributed Ledger technologies, we will develop a platform that enables the aggregation of transport services without requiring a centralized intermediary.

The distributed ledgers used by the TSio Protocol can remain highly decentralised and secure, via the ability to run “nodes” on connected vehicles, traffic signals and cameras, local ticket validator machines and smartphones.

The TSio Token is designed to be a mobility account for either an individual or vehicle. The tokens can also connect with each other to provide mobility accounts for groups of people and fleets of vehicles.

We are designing the TSio token to be at any point in time tethered to a user ID, a geographic location and holding device. This interaction between the digital and physical domain provides a helpful mathematical constraint for the intended use case of managing the movement of people and goods. It enables high volumes of low value transactions and fast validation processes in a secured network environment.

TSio Token mobility accounts will provide the infrastructure for next generation integrated ticketing systems (i.e. creating an alternative viable layer for integrated ticketing systems such as Oyster, Octopus et al). They will also provide mobility account infrastructure for smart parking, usage based insurance, maintenance and fuelling services applications.

In time, we plan for the mobility accounts to gain advanced smart contract capabilities, that can not only replace intermediaries, but enable new markets to function. For example, TSio Token mobility accounts will support the autonomous creation and management of underlying multi-party commercial agreements for integrated service offers in the mobility sector. It will enable eco-system partners to provide total personalisation of offers and real-time settlement.

During our pre-sale period, we will design the TSio Community Token to the ERC20 Standard [u] and provide a more detailed technical whitepaper in support of the ICO. We will also build a “Minimum Viable Product” (MVP) that connects with the “MVPs” already developed by our “Minimum Viable Community” (MVC) members, GoMetro, Mydex and MyLoop.

To date, we have determined that the TSio Protocol core layer are likely to involve the following Blockchain and Database related technical features:

  • Permission and/or Capabilities based network entry [v]
  • Proof of Stake, Proof of Elapsed Time, DAG consensus algorithms [D, b].
  • Innovation on consensus through Proof of Location [e, g].
  • Shared read: a structured data store that many people can read
  • Shared write: many people can write data into the database
  • Absence of trust: the different writers do not have to trust each other not to manipulate the shared database state
  • Disintermediation: there is no need for a trusted intermediary to enforce access control (or none is available) [7]
  • Transactions: records in the database depend on and link to each other
  • Validation rules: anyone with a copy of the database can validate that it has been maintained correctly

Subject to further analyses of user requirements, that we will achieve through live pilot activity, we have identified 6 levels of core protocol layer development

  • Level 1 – Travel Wallet
  • Level 2 – Travel Insurance and Dispute Arbitration
  • Level 3 – Customer Account
  • Level 4 – Mobility Market Place
  • Level 5 – Mobility as a Service
  • Level 6 –Capability Based Security

Finally, subject to further research, we expect to be initially building on-top of the following base distributed ledgers: Bitcoin [a],  Ethereum [d], HyperLedger [q] and IOTA [s]. For “near-time” commercialisation activity we expect eco-system partners to be most interested in the development of Ethereum DApps [J], while more long-sighted R&D will focus on IOTA and HyperLedger (Sawtooth & Burrow) technologies, which benefit from a more scalable architectural design.

Open Solution Architecture for TSio Protocol

Eco-System Value Proposition

The success and scaled adoption of the open-source TSio Protocol core layer will be dependent upon achieving success for our eco-system, and extracting sustainable revenue from the Mobility as a Service market.

Furthermore, it will be essential, that we develop a shared-vision with each industry segment – Air Travel, Automotive, Public Transport and new mobility sharing platforms – on a technology development roadmap for TSio Protocol.

The proceeds of our proposed TSio token sale will go to members of the minimum viable community, development the open-source TSio Protocol core layer, development of the eco-system and engagement with industry and future clients on technical requirements.

We propose for our core Minimum Viable Product (MVP) to be “a universal mobility account and community token for connected people and cars”.

Through this MVP, we are bringing together two distinct market opportunities, the “Smart City” B2G and B2B market and the “Connected, Autonomous and Electric Vehicle” B2B market. In both markets our protocol enables our “eco-system” to provide B2C products and services.

By positioning our technology to support automotive, airlines, public transport and new sharing economy platforms, we hope to generate investment interest from all sectors, generating significant network effects.

The following statements represent our current understanding of the value TSio Protocol can bring to respective industry segments:

Value to Air Travel: The International Air Transport Association (IATA) has developed the New Distribution Capability (NDC) standard. It enables an airline to make sales offers to “sellers” without the need of a third-party intermediary. Our We will help airlines maximise the benefits of the NDC standard, using our mobility account infrastructure as a key “selling” channel for growth in direct distribution.

 Value to Automotive: Development of interoperable mobility account infrastructure for drivers and for vehicles, that can integrate with other transport modes and other products and services – for example home entertainment, delivery services and usage-based insurance products.

Value to Public Transport: We can provide secure, scalable and affordable solutions for “next generation” smart-ticketing schemes. This addresses a well-recognised “pain-point” amongst a growing number of cities, who have a desire for an account-based travel platform, but cannot afford the expensive back-office solutions that the current transport systems market is able to offer.

Value to Sharing Platforms: Seamless operational and commercial integration with public transport. Enable sharing of resources between these platforms.

Note: for existing smart-ticketing schemes, we can help reduce the processing costs of their high volume low value transactions, without the need for major overhaul of their legacy systems. “Mobile Wallet” solutions can increase loyalty and enable integration with taxi and car rental services.

As a payments platform, the core TSio Protocol layer could be naturally perceived as a competitor to Mastercard, Visa, Apple Pay and Android Pay. The players have well established contactless payment market share, and can already be used in London in place of the public transport “Oyster Card” product.

To enable market transitions to and on-going interoperability with our platform, TSio Protocol will be built to be compatible and to be able to sit alongside existing smart ticketing, payment schemes and transport data standards.

For example, in the UK a not-for-profit organisation, ITSO, sets the standard for “Smart Tickets” – based upon “customer media” – SmartCard or SmartPhone and “point of sale terminal” and “hops” centralised back office infrastructure.

Developed with substantial support from the Department for Transport – ITSO is the de-facto legislation/regulation in the UK. The standard does not include standards on financial settlement, reimbursements or ticketing product management. For more information visit

Open Eco-System Value Proposition

Eco-System Products, Applications and Services

By focusing on the development of an open common, global and universal protocol for transport management and payment applications, we aim to deliver a TSio Protocol core platform layer that could enable eco-system partners the opportunity to provide a diverse range of application and services.

Enabling this diversity is important to the transportation industry, where operational and transactional requirements can vary significantly across regions – due to geographical, cultural and political factors.

Here is a brief exploration of the types of applications we see developing on top of the TSio Protocol layer:

Travel Tokens and Mobility Accounts

  • Enable access to eligible transport services.
  • Provide people multiple transport options from one account.
  • Cars can pay for services, independently of driver or owner.
  • Solve commercial trust issues and remove the need for 3rd party arbitrators.

Consumer Protection Services & Mobility Market Place

  • Includes travel insurance and compensation schemes.
  • Enable a fluid peer2peer exchange of pre-paid services and sharing of vehicle assets – e.g. car and bike sharing schemes.
  • Enable seamless use across electric charging station networks.
  • Enhance the total journey experience and generate advertising revenue.

To enable the highest variety and choice of applications, a crucial part of the success of TSio Protocol will be supporting an “eco-system” of third party technology companies.

The “eco-system” will be able to deploy TSio compliant applications, with appropriate licensing arrangements with the TSio Protocol, that ensure security and inter-operability standards are maintained. The figure below summarises the results of a recent poll conducted with the TravelSpirit Community on their views on what applications were of most interest to them. The results have been segmented by their interest in the project (e.g investors, eco-system etc.)

What applications are of most interest to the TravelSpirit Community?

Source: Primary Research on 70 TravelSpirit Community members – see appendices

To further understand the value of TSio Protocol, the following chapters provide a “deeper dive” into the products, applications and services of our “Minimum Viable Community” for the eco-system provided by GoMetro, Mydex and MyLoop.

Open Eco-System Products, Applications and Services

GoMetro Flexible Mobility

GoMetro is improving the way cities move their people, tackling congestion, parking and environmental issues that all urban areas are currently facing. It envisions a world where cities are finally people-centric, rather than car-dominated.

We deploy our flexible mobility system (FLX), integrating various forms of transport services into a single mobility service accessible on demand, having already developed a full technology stack consisting of:

  • GoMetro Pro: digital tools enabling the evaluation, optimization and visualization of urban mobility and transport operations within a given territory (municipality, business park, transport operator network)
  • GoMetro App: smartphone app providing a seamless commuting experience with a fully intermodal journey planner that integrates various modes of transports
  • FLX On-Demand: smartphone apps for riders and drivers, supplying private demand-responsive mobility solutions to complement public transports

Founded in 2012, GoMetro has now a core team of 25 people, headquartered in Cape Town with a presence in the UK as well. We have a broad range of different skills in-house to grow and scale the business further: transport engineers, software developers, sales gurus, lawyer, product expert, marketer.

GoMetro is one of six startups chosen from across the UK, to enter the Intelligent Mobility Accelerator, a partnership in the UK between Transport Systems Catapult and Wayra UK to boost high-growth startups in the mobility sector. It will assist GoMetro with its market entry into the UK transport supply chain.

Our solution allows city leaders, transport managers, corporates, retail centres, property developers, airports or universities to plan and introduce newer and better transportation methods, supported by business intelligence.

We help commuters to connect with public transport services using only their smartphones. In South Africa, we already have 25,000 users of our GoMetro App, that is optimised for use in “emerging markets”, where many of our customers do not have access to advanced payment applications and have relatively poor data connectivity compared to many first-world cities.

TSio Protocol presents an exciting opportunity to provide viable payment solutions for many of our existing “emerging market” customers and to also trial blockchain enabled mobility accounts integrated our FLX On-Demand system, on our live operations and customers in South Africa.

Open GoMetro Flexible Mobility

Mydex Trust Framework for Personal Data

a zero-knowledge Digital Public Services Platform

Mydex CIC was founded in 2007, with a values framework that makes Mydex unique even in today’s blossoming personal data ecosystem. This framework has guided the evolution of Mydex: as a Community Interest Company, a Social Enterprise and the creation of its Trust Framework, zero-knowledge Digital Public Services platform, built entirely from open source components.

Our mission is to empower individuals to manage their lives more effectively through convenient, trustworthy access and control of their personal data and how it is used by them and others.

Our values are that Individuals own their own data, and proof of identity. They have a right to choose privacy, assert proof of claims and to invoke the level of sharing they wish. Basic human rights extend to the digital realm.

…[we] will provide benefit to individuals seeking to better manage their personal data by helping them assert greater control over how this data is used by organisations and realise the potential value of this data. Mydex CIC provides personal data management services and a safe, secure and convenient means for individuals to electronically share information with chosen organisations.”

Mydex Statement of Community Benefits

The Mydex platform provides the following core capabilities which we will bring to project to act as a test bed, we hope and expect our expertise in building a fully live ISO27001 and FairData certified platform using open source components will enhance the capability needed to deliver the TSio protocol and the applications and services enabled by it.

  • identity services – privacy-friendly, portable MydexID that can be used anywhere that open standards are used (OpenID, SAML). Organisations can get out of providing username and passwords and become a relying party for increased security and flexibility in achieving single sign on.
    • The individual has one core set of privacy-friendly identity credentials they can use anywhere. This works like social sign-in but without the downside of privacy bleed you get from services such as Facebook, Google and Twitter.
  • personal data services – enable the delivery, collection, storage, organisation and distribution of a wide range of verified personal data across the full spectrum of an individual’s life. Organisations can deliver, subscribe to and gain insight and analysis directly from the data stored by the individual.
    • The individual can bring together their whole life in an easy-to-manage manner. They only need to collect the information once, and can share it where and whenever they wish to securely and easily.
    • The distributed nature of data storage allows for innovation and increased security for organisations offering account management services. This means no large customer databases are exposed to the internet, which reduces risk.
  • Consent and permission management services – A simple, effective means of securing consent and permission for data use and sharing, using a standardised legal framework with flexibility within the use case definition and range and sources of data

These platform services are delivered through standards-based APIs, making it easy to integrate into existing customer journeys and to plug in application components as a service. There are a number of innovators building new value propositions and services using our platform as core enabling components.  We have a range of projects running with some 30 organisations who serve over 27 million citizens, students, patients, employees stakeholders and consumers between them across the public, private and third sector.

We are designed to be sustainable as it is vital that individual’s Mydex Personal Data Store and MydexID can be with them for life. Mydex CIC is actively engaged in a wide range of communities including the OpenID foundation [K], Open Identity Exchange [L], the Personal Data Ecosystem Consortium, Fair Data [M], tScheme Limited, Social Enterprise UK, Social Enterprise Scotland and EEMA [N].

Mydex CIC will be adopting the TSio protocol as part of our multi-protocol support strategy to support those organisations building on the Mydex platform and working with the Transport Sector and mobility as a service providers.

Open Mydex Trust Framework for Personal Data

MyLoop Wearable Technology for Public Transit

A resident startup business of enterprise incubator, The Landing, at MediaCityUK in Manchester, MyLoop Ltd is developing a wearable technology, with support from Barclays Eagle Labs 3D printing facilities, which aims to integrate all public transit ticketing systems into one secure place.

Our mission is:

  1. To improve the current user experience by combining travel passes, multiple paper and mobile tickets into one product, acting as a universal ticketing platform compatible with your phone through a web application.
  2. Revolutionise the way people ticket when using public transport by replacing traditional methods of ticketing.

Our first consumer product, Flit, is designed to appeal to a whole range of demographics. Initially we intend to target commuters and tourists in large vibrant and tourist-bound cities that are also embracing the emerging Blockchain and crypto-currency markets, such as London, Singapore, Hong Kong, Tokyo, Dubai, San Francisco, New York, Chicago, Milan and St Peterbourg.

The purpose of Flit, is to make travel more seamless and efficient by removing the need for multiple paper tickets, having to rely on our mobile phones and eliminating the hassle of finding what you need in time to reach the barrier.

Navigating through various cities can be a stressful experience but through a purchase of the Flit, all modes of transport will be accessible via the flit app, topping it up as they go. Another segment we are keen to explore is schools, where students can use our solution for their travels, giving them independence, as well as their parents peace of mind.

The problem was discovered first hand when travelling at peak time, on the busy London underground. Imagine you’re travelling during rush hour and you can’t find your ticket, which causes queues to backup and adds stress to your daily routine. Flit provides a solution that eliminates these problems by creating a seamless and stylish experience that benefits not only the user but the whole transit ecosystem.

Given the highly competitive market, Flit is an affordable hands-free solution in comparison to smart watches, which retail for exceedingly higher prices. Flit is an appealing option compared to current travel card methods as it can be worn as a stylish, integrated lifestyle piece; without the expensive price tag of existing wearables.

TSio Protocol provides the mobility account infrastructure to enable our MVP to connect and thrive outside of the most advanced smart cities, which represent our “near-time” market opportunity.

Becoming a member of the TSio “Minimum Viable Community” has already opened our eyes to opportunities we may have not considered, such as the potential to explore automotive and aviation applications, in addition to public transit. We also look forward to working with GoMetro on a Cape Town pilot.

Collaborating with TSio Protocol allows MyLoop to give people control over their data, through a shared and open data system. In comparison to existing data storage systems such as Google and Apple, where data is stored and logged through smart watches/phones, this gives our business proposition a refreshing advantage from a user perspective.

Furthermore, having the opportunity to work alongside professionals who have experience in the travel-tech industry, their combined skills and knowledge can provide MyLoop the support and advice it needs, helping us to form connections to grow and rapidly scale our business.

Open MyLoop Wearable Technology for Public Transit

The Role of Community Token Economies

Open source software has traditionally supported its development in three ways: contributions and donations from individuals and companies; premium services on-top of a “free” product; and fee-based industry consortia such as Hyperledger [C] in Blockchain.

Network tokens provide an economic incentive for open-source software and protocol development which allows projects to remain open-source rather than having to go proprietary to capture the value that is created. This provides a unique business model that wasn’t available to pioneers of other information and communication networks such as the internet. The token also becomes a powerful tool for coordination of efforts [23]; we believe it also makes it extremely difficult for conventionally backed proprietary startups to compete [23].

We believe Initial Coin Offerings (ICOs) [t] can provide a significantly less wasteful way to finance innovation compared to the traditional venture capital (VC) model, if executed effectively. Recent examples of sizeable ICOs include CIVIC and IOTA.

The current VC approach sees 90% of startups fail [23], with the top reasons being:

  1. No market need
  2. Run out of cash
  3. Not the right team

When VC-backed or bootstrapped startups fail, almost all value from IP to institutional know-how is lost forever and so can be a highly inefficient way to deploy capital.

Tokenised open source projects potentially offer a solution to this dilemma. If the project fails, others can continue using the existing code and tokens, allowing it to succeed in spite of the initial project failure.

However, ill-prepared ICOs have had the effect of discrediting this route to market. To date, a large majority of ICOs have been poorly designed and executed in terms of readiness, team, product, governance, technical, compliance and commercials. Above all, the majority of ICOs fail to acknowledge the fact that creating a token is more than funding a startup; it is creating a new digital economy. Few have given much thought to how they want that new economy to behave and be sustained.

Traditionally, in a proprietary environment, because of the high failure rate previously discussed, competition and diverse experimentation is not only good but necessary. In the token economy, however, this means many are either raising large amounts of capital to duplicate the open source infrastructure each needs to deliver value to their particular market segment, or they are building directly on general purpose protocols unable to serve the needs of their specific use cases optimally.

For these reasons, we are adopting an alternative approach to siloed innovation called a ‘Community Token Economy’ or ‘CTE’  [23] where otherwise competing teams, including startups and possibly incumbents, combine their efforts early on within a focused theme.

Doing so helps realise common infrastructure to contribute towards building network effect and economies of scale more quickly via a collectively owned protocol and shared ‘Community Token’.

The Community Token is a utility token, required for using the core protocol layer as developed in the project. The Community Token is the token that binds the entire CTE community. Its value aligns the interest of all community members.

Source: Outlier Ventures [23] – n.b. %’s are only illustrative

The function of the Community Token can evolve throughout the lifetime of the CTE. At the inception of the CTE, no core protocol exists, because it has yet to be designed and built. In the early stages, it can be used to reward all types of contribution to the core protocol and organisation like design, development, marketing and governance. As the core protocol is developed, additional properties are added to it, reflecting the common principles of the community. Each new version gets deployed after approval through the chosen CTE governance structure, giving the community control over the development of the token itself.

Today, token sales derive most of their value from the potential amount that a token will increase in utility (the discounted expected utility value [23]). This anticipation is what motivates early participation and contribution to the network. As utility value of a network increases, the network grows larger and is able to capitalize on its enhanced network effects. The market value of the token transitions from its expected utility value to its realised utility value. Early participants benefit from enhanced access to products and services which are transferable by selling their access rights to the network (i.e. tokens).

The premise of the Community Token Economy Sale (CTES) is to introduce complementary products and services into a shared economy to offer greater utility value for the Community Token, as quickly as possible. The initial utility value of its Community Token will be greater the sum of the value that could be achieved through Individual Token Sales (ITS). The more resources and pre-existing services each party can contribute, the greater the impact. It’s important to remember that these contributors can be mature, revenue generating companies.

Source: Outlier Ventures: Creating sustainable digital token economies, September 2017 [23]

Open The Role of Community Token Economies

TravelSpirit Community Token Economy

The TravelSpirit Community is a growing global network of transport operators, software developers, businesses, policy makers, planners and activists across the mobility and technology sectors, who are united by the four core values held by the TravelSpirit Foundation – see

Most crucially the community believes that an open, integrated, connected, multi-modal MaaS system provides the path to sustainable and equitable transportation for all.

Having been born out of an open-source project initiative set up with support of Transport for Greater Manchester, UK, the TravelSpirit Community ( has now grown across the UK and internationally into France, Holland, Finland, Denmark, Italy, Canada, Singapore and South Africa.

The TravelSpirit Community now has 50+ member organisations and a following of 5000+ individuals, with the community spanning all the major transport sectors of automotive, airlines, public transport and the new sharing platforms.

In the automotive sector, while car sales continue to rise at a global level, we are seeing a lot of proactive investment in exploring new business models by the incumbent vehicle manufacturers often referred to as Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs). This includes an increasing interest in sharing platforms and integration with the airline and public transport industries.

In the airline and travel industries these areas of the sector were the first to be transformed by the new platform economies, such as AirBnB, with many positive, albeit controversial, results for customers and the industry as a whole. Mobility as a Service is in the DNA of the airline and travel industries, which also have a strong record for business model innovation (e.g. Galileo airline reservation system).

In public transport, the industry regulators continue to push for more open data. However, in cities where public transport is thriving, we are finding that the very same companies who have benefited most from open data, are highly closed in their own approach to sharing. We are also finding that the incumbent operating companies are struggling to undergo the necessary cultural and organisational change, to reform the market from within.

Moving forwards, a key challenge for all industry sectors, including the new sharing and flexible transport platforms, is how to incentivise the development of open ecosystems. This is a challenge that TSio Protocol addresses head-on.

In time, we are proposing that the existing TravelSpirit Community is invited to join the TravelSpirit Community Token Economy, underpinned by the TSio token and a wider vision and framework for the Internet of Mobility.

Structure of the TravelSpirit Open Mobility Community Token Economy (TSio)

Source: Outlier Ventures: Creating sustainable digital token economies, September 2017  [23]

We propose the starting point for our TravelSpirit Community Token Economy is the ‘MVC’, or ‘Minimum Viable Community’. This is the idea of having the participation of enough of the community in the CTE’s design and subsequent launch to make it meaningful; with MVC members providing the ‘MVPs’, or ‘Minimum Viable Products’ to enable regulated seed investment to be part of the funding mix. The founding members of our MVC are TravelSpirit Foundation, GoMetro, Mydex and MyLoop. All parties culturally aligned with the vision for the Internet of Mobility, and have a common interest in the TSio Protocol.

Open TravelSpirit Community Token Economy

Next Steps

This paper presents several innovations and emerging market trends, that combine to create an exciting new future for transportation.

This includes:

  • A new integrated transportation market, called Mobility-as-a-Service (MaaS).
  • A new technology and supporting regulatory framework, called the Internet of Mobility, built with Web, Blockchain, Internet of Things (IoT) and Artificial Intelligence (AI) technologies.
  • A new open-source protocol layer for enabling integrated, seamless, secure and roaming mobility infrastructure, called the TSio Protocol, including innovations in Blockchain technologies for a novel TSio Community and Mobility Account token.
  • The relatively recent rise in the use of Initial Coin Offerings (ICOs) to fund open-source development projects.
  • An emerging new concept of the Community Token Economy Sale (CTES), that advocates the development of a “Minimum Viable Community” (MVC).

Given the “newness” of all the above to the existing mobility and technology industries, against a desire and strong interest to “move fast” with respect to the CTES opportunity, we see are proposing the following next steps:

  • Design the TSio Token and create the TSio Protocol “MVP”.
  • Engage with the airline, automotive, public transport and sharing platform industries on a shared-vision of technical requirements for TSio Protocol.
  • Invite interest from the TravelSpirit Community, and wider innovation scene, to join the TravelSpirit Community Token Economy (CTE) “eco-system”.
  • Invite interest in joining a “whitelist” of investors for a TSio Community Token Economy Pre-Sale.
  • Invite interest from cities, regions and transport operations to be identified as a physical test-bed for TSio Protocol development and pilots.
  • Prepare for a public CrowdSale: Community Token Economy Sale (CTES), or otherwise known as a Community Token Initial Coin Offering (ICO).

Open Next Steps


[1] United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs/Population, World Urbanization Prospects, 2014,

[2] David Metz, Centre for Transport Studies, UCL, Future of Cities: beyond Peak Car, August 2015

[3] Top 20 Reasons Why Startups Fail [Infographic] – Forbes.” March 2016,

[4] Amy Dickens, Academy of Urbanism, 2026 Urbanism Manifesto, April 2016

[5] John Matley et al, Deloitte, May 2016, Insuring the Future of Mobility

[6] James Datson et al, Transport Systems Catapult, July 2016

[7] Wall Street Journal, CIO Insights and Analysis from Deloitte, Blockchain and the Democratization of Trust, August 2016,

[10] Finnish Ministry of Transport & Communications, Finnish Transport Code, September 2016

[11] White Clark Group, IBM UK, November 2016, How is Blockchain set to revolutionize the auto finance industry? Toyota investment in R3 consortium.

[12] Deloitte Insights, The Future of Mobility: Ben’s Journey, November 2016

[13] Warwick Goodall et al, Deloitte, the rise of Mobility as a Service, January 2017

[14] Office for National Statistics: Retail sales, Great Britain: January 2017,

[15] Maria Kamargianni & Melinda Matyas, University College London,

January 2017, The Business Eco-System of Mobility-as-a-Service

[16] March 2017, A Holistic Overview of the Mobility-as-a-Service Ecosystem

[17] Transport Systems Catapult, The Case for Government Involvement to Incentivise Data Sharing in the UK Intelligent Mobility Sector, March 2017,

[18] Giles Bailey, Si Ho, Beate Kubitz et al, TravelSpirit Foundation,

May 2017, Open or Closed? The case for Openness in Mobility as a Service

[19] July 2017, autonomy: the role of Robotics and Artificial Intelligence in Public Transportation and Urban Mobility for Cities

[20] Toyota invests in MaaS Global, June 2017

[21] James Bamford, Huddersfield Business School, Mobility as a Service: Where are we?

[22] MaaS Alliance, September 2017, Guidelines & Recommendations to create the foundations for a thriving MaaS EcoSystem

[23] Jamie Burke, Aron van Ammers et al, Outlier Ventures

September 2017, Creating sustainable digital token economies within open source communities

[24] October 2017, Exploring Blockchain-Enabled Convergence & the Web 3.0 Economy

[25] Mangrove Capital Partners, October 2017, Tokenisation: Implications for the venture capital industry

[26] Peter Walker, Laura Laker, The Guardian, UK may consider electric vehicle subsidy to increase cycling, October 2017,

[27] Nick Chrissos, CitySPIRE: the next generation of on-demand transport

[28] Rob Walker, The Guardian, Bike-sharing pedalling towards becoming a British way of life, November 2017,

[29] UK Parliament Commons Select Committee, Inquiry into MaaS, November 2017

Core Technology References

[a] Satoshi Nakamoto, October 2008, Bitcoin, A Peer-to-Peer Electronic Cash System

[b] Jae Kwon, 2014, Original Tendermint Whitepaper: Consensus without Mining

[c] David Schwartz et al, Ripple Labs Inc, 2014, The Ripple Protocol Consensus Algorithm

[d] Vitalik Buterin, July 2014, Ethereum Whitepaper, A Next-Generation Smart Contract and Decentralized Application Platform

[e] Bob McElrath, May 2016, Blockchain Proof of Location

[f] Crypto Tokens and the Coming Age of Protocol Innovation – Albert Wenger, July 2016

[g] Giacomo Brambilla, Michele Amoretti, and Francesco Zanichelli, University of Palma, Italy, July 2016 Using Blockchain for Peer-to-Peer Proof-of-Location

[h] Silvia Capato, Robbin Blokpoel, Yanying Li et al, November 2016, Report on Services Developed for MOBinET – Internet of Mobility

[j] Dan Middleton et al, HyperLedger Burrow, March 2017, the permissible smart contract machine

[k] Cryptocoin News, April 2017, Blockchain: Why a Trust-Less System is the Most Trustable System in the World

[o] “Leveraging the True Power of Tokens for Early Stage … – VariabL Blog.” August 2017,

[p] The Crypto J-Curve – Chris Burniske, August 2017,

[q] HyperLedger Architecture Volume 1, Introduction to Hyperledger Business Blockchain Design Philosophy and Consensus, August 2017,

[r] Dietrich Sümmermann et al, MotionWerk, September 2017, Open Mobility System Concept Paper,

[s] IOTA Whitepaper, The Tangle, October 2017,

PluginBaby, November 2017, Gdansk IOTA Hackathon Winners

[t] Definition of ICO, Investopedia, accessed December 2017,

[u] ERC20 Token Standard, accessed December 2017,

[v] Robust Composition: Towards a Unified Approach to Access Control and Concurrency Control, December 2017,

Live resources:

 Low-Level Protocols

[A] Bitcore

[B] Ethereum White Paper (wiki)

[C} Hyperledger Consortium

[D] Hyperledger Sawtooth

[E} Hyperledger Burrow

Developer Resources

{F} IOTA Developer Hub

{G] Open Zeppelin an open framework of reusable and secure smart contracts in the Solidity language

[H} Ripple Developer Centre

{I}Solidity Smart Contract Language on Ethereum Virtual Machine (EVM)

[J] State of the DApps, a curated list of 800+ decentralised applications for ethereum,

Personal Data and Identity Management

[K] OpenID foundation

[L] Open Identity Exchange

[M} Fair Data

[N} EEMA – Europe’s leading independent not-for-profit Think Tank

[O] General Data Protection Regulations (GDPR)